Building a DApps on ERC-4337 & EIP-2938


February 29, 2024


Building an DApp requires meticulous attention to detail from inceptions to launch. Crafting a secure, user- centric experience begins with coding a smart contract for NFTs while optimising gas efficiency. The development phase focuses on creating an intuitive interface and establishing seamless wallet integration. Rigorous testing and validation are essential to guarantee reliability and robust security the Dapps readiness for deployment.

Post-launch, ongoing maintenance and dedicated user support become vital components of sustained success. continuous updates and improvements keep the DApp competitive and aligned with evolving user needs,solidifying its position in the dynamic blockchain landscape. Building a DApp is a multifaceted journey, demanding technical prowess,user-centric design, and a commitment to long-term excellence.

What is ERC 4337 ?

ERC-4337 is an Ethereum standard that enables account abstraction without rquiring any changes to the Ethereum protocol. It was first proposed in 2021 and deployed on the Ethereum mainnet in march 2023.Account abstraction is a feature that allows users to interact with the Ethereum blockchain without having to manage their own private keys. This makes it possible for create more user-friendly wallets and other applications.

ERC-4337 works by using a layer of smart contracts to mediate all between users and the Ethereum blockchain. This allows users to create and manage accounts, send and receive transactions, and interact with smart contracts without ever having to expose their private keys.ERC-4337 has a number of potential benefits for users and developers. For users, it can make it easier to interact with the Ethereum blockchain and reduce the risk of losing their funds. For developers, it can enable new types of wallets and applications that were not possible before.

Popular Read: Build DApps on Hyperledger Blockchain

Here are some of the specific benefits of ERC-4337

Improverd user experiance- ERC-4337 makes it possible to create wallets and other applications that are more user friendly and easier to use. For example, users could log in to their wallets using biometric authentication or social recovery.

Increased security- ERC-4337 reduce the risk of users losing their funds by eliminating the need to manage private keys.

New features- ERC-4337 enables new types of wallets and applications that were not possible before. For example, it could be used to create wallets that support multiple signatures or that allows users to delegate their voting power. ERC-4337 is still a relatively new standard, but it has the potential to revolutionize the wayn.

What is EIP 2938 ?

EIP 2938 is an Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) that introduces the concept of an “Account abstraction” to the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). It allows contracts to pay transaction fees on behalf of users and opens up new possibilities for DApp design and user experience.

Types of DApps

1.Decentralised finance (DeFi) DApps- These DApps enable users to access financial services without the need for a third party. This includes things like decentralised exchanges, lending platforms, and insurance protocols.

2.Non-fungible token (NFT) DApps- These dApps allow users to create, buy, sell, and trade NFTs. NFTs are unique digital assets which represent anything from artwork to in-game items.

3.GameFi DApps- These DApps combine gaming with blockchain technology. They often allow players to earn tokens or other rewards for playing the game.

4.social DApps- Social DApps allow users to connect with each other and share information in a decentralised way. They often use blockchain technology to store data and manage user accounts.

5.Enterprise DApps- Enterprise DApps are designed for use by businesses. They can be used for things like supply chain management, financial reporting, and customer loyalty programs.

How DApp works

DApps enhance accessibility and usability, making them more appealing and approachable for a broader audience. DApps operating on the foundations of ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 function by simplifying the intricacies of blokchain technology. This abstraction empowers developers to channel their effors into creating user-centric applications,sparing them from the complexities of overseeing accounts and transaction on the blockchain.

In essence, these DApps utilize the principles of account abstraction, where smart contracts can facilitate transactions on behalf of users. This eliminates the need for users to manage the nifty-grity details of their accounts and interactions, resulting in a more seamless and user-friendly experiance. By abstracting the underlying blockchain complexities, DApps enhances accessibility and usability, making them more appealing and approachable for a broader auidenc.

Creating a DApp with ERC-4337 and EIP-2938

Use a compatible wallet

To get started with your DApp, you'll need a cryptocurrency wallet that supports ERc-4337 and EIP-2938 standards.These standards are essential for interacting with decentralized applications on the Ethereum blockchain. Ensure your chosen walle is compatibel with these standards. as it will allow you to securely manage your tokens and interact with smart contracts within your dApp..

Choose a bundler

Bundles play a crucial role in Ethereum transaction processing. They are responsible for aggregating multiple transactions into a single bundle. optimizing gas usage, and reducing costs. When creating your DApp, select a reliable bundler service or software to ensure efficient and cost -effective transaction processing. This choice can significantly impact the overall performance and affordability of your DApp.

Set up a gas price

Gas is the unit of computation in the Ethereum network, and every transaction requires a certain amount of gas to be executed. To optimize transaction processing within your DApp,it's important to set an appropriate gas price. This price determines how quickly your transactions are confirmed. it's balaance between speed and cost. so consider network conditions and your specific DApp requirements when configuring the gas price.

rack your transactions

Effective transaction tracking is essentail for a seamless user experiance in your DApp. Implement tools or mechanism to monitor the status of transactions initiated by users. This includes tracking whether transactions are pending, confirmed, or have encountered any issues. Real-time transaction tracking can help users understand the prgress of their actions and maintain transparency within your DAapp.

Making Structure of an DApp of ERC 4337 and EIP 2938

Understand ERC-4337 and EIP-2938

ERC-4337 is a standard that defines how your token should work, while EIP-2938 helps reduce transaction costs.Familiarize yourself with these standards to understand the basic requirements and optimise gas costs.

a.Solidity Contract

Create a Solidity Contract for your token following the ERC-4337 standard. Inherit from the ERC-4337 interface and include all the required functions and events in your contract to define its behaviour and functionality.

b.Implement EIP-2938

To incorporate EIP-2938, add access lists to your contract functions. These lists determine which addresses can perform specific actions, reducing transaction costs by minimising data processing.

c.Develop Functionality

Build additional functionalities specific to your DApp on the top of the token contract. This could include features like token mining, burning, transfers, and any other custom functionality required by your application.

d.Smart Contract Testing

To make sure your smart contract works correctly and is strong, write detailed tests that cover all the features and special cases. These tests help you find and fix any mistakes, bugs, or weaknesses in your contract.


Deploy your smart contract to the Ethereum network using a tool like Truffle or Remix. Choose the appropriate network (mainnet, testnet, or a local development network) based on your requirements.

f.Front-end Development

To create a user interface (UI) for your DApp, use common web technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. You can connect to the Ethereum network and interact with your smart contract by using a web3 library like Web3.js or Ethers.js.

g.Testing and Deployment

Test your DApp thoroughly to ensure its functionality aligns with your requirements. Deploy the front-end application to a hosting provider or decentralised storage platform for users to access.

h.Security Considerations

Pay attention to security best practices throughout the development process. Be careful of potential vulnerabilities such as reentrancy, integer overflow/underflow, and ensure proper input validation to protect against common attack vectors.

i.Iteration Improvements

Continuously improve and iterate on your DApp based on user feedback and evolving requirements. Stay updated with the latest developments in the Ethereum ecosystem and incorporate new standards or improvements as necessary.

Drawbacks of using DApp


DApps can be complex to develop and use. This means that developers may need to have a good understanding of Ethereum smart contracts in order to build a DApp that uses this feature.


Account abstraction can introduce new security risks. For example, if a smart contract is hacked, it could potentially steal all of the funds that are stored in that contract. This is why it is important to use security best practices when building a DApp that uses account abstraction.

Lack of Support

Not all DApp platforms currently support account abstraction. This means that developers who want to build DApps on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 may need to use a platform that supports it.Enhancing Scalability for your Blockchain SolutionsDapps may have scalability and flexibility issues. This is because blockchains are limited in their ability to process transactions.As a result Dapps can go through slow transaction time and high costs when there is a lot of activity on the blockchain.

Lack of regulation

Dapps are mostly unregulated.This means that there is no protection for the users if something goes wrong.For example, if a Dapp is hacked and the user loses all funds, there are no legal actions that users can take.

Use Cases of DApps that use ERC 4337 and EIP 2938

DEXs can use smart contracts to provide a more secure and user-friendly trading experience.

Decentralised finance (DeFi) applications- DeFi applications can use smart contracts to provide a more secure and efficient way to manage financial assets. For Example, a leading app could let users deposit their ETH and borrow other cryptocurrencies against it. This simplifies DeFi participation without worrying about complex account setups.

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs)- NFTs can be stored and managed using smart contracts, which can provide a more secure and transparent way to trade and collect them.

Gaming applications- Gaming applications can use smart contracts to provide a more immersive and rewarding gaming experience.

Social media platforms- ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can be used to build social media platforms that are more user-owned and controlled. For example, users of these platforms could have a say in how the platform is run and how their data is used.

Identity management- ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can be used to build identity management systems that are more secure and private. For example, users of these systems could have complete control over their own data and could choose who they share it with.

Ready to explore the possibilities of building your own DApp with ERC-4337 and EIP-2938? Contact us today to get started on your decentralized journey!

How Blockchain affects a DApp that use ERC 4337 and EIP 2938

Increased Scalability

ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 allow for increased scalability by enabling DApps to batch transactions together and pay for them in a single bundle. This can significantly reduce the number of transactions that need to be processed by the network, which can lead to faster transaction confirmation times and lower gas fees.

Improved Security

ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can improve the security of DApps by making it more difficult for malicious actors to spam the network with transactions. This is because bundlers are responsible for filtering out invalid or malicious transactions before they are included in a block.

Increased flexibility

ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can give DApps more flexibility by allowing them to use a wider range of programming languages and development tools. This can make it easier for developers to create and maintain DApps, and can lead to more innovative and user-friendly applications.

More user-friendly wallets

ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can be used to build wallets that are easier to use and more secure.For example, wallets that support account abstraction can allow users to interact with smart contracts without managing and controlling their own private keys.

Gaming application

ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can be used to build gaming applications that are more fair and transparent.For example, the games that used smart contracts to manage in-game items assets can ensure that all transactions are irreplaceable and that all players have equal access to the games economy.

Compatibe Blockchains for ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 DApp ?


Polygon is a layer-2 scaling solution for Ethereum. It supports ERC-4337 and EIP-2938, which makes it a good choice for building DApps that need to scale.


Arbitbrum is another layer-2 scaling solution for Ethereum. It supports ERC-4337 and EIP-2938, which makes it a good choice for building DApps that need to scale.


Optimism is another layer-2 scaling solution for Ethereum. It supports ERC-4337 and EIP-2938, which makes it a good choice for building DApps that need to scale.


Solana is a high-performance blockchain that is well-suited for DApps. This blockchain offers fast transactions and low gas fees.However it is still under development and its ecosystem is not as mature as Ethereum's.


Tezos is an energy-efficient blockchain that is also well-suited for DApps.It offers fast transaction times and low gas fees.This blockchain also has a strong focus on governance and security.

Who can build a DApp on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938

Building a DApp on the ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 standards is open to developers and organizations seeking to create decentarlized applications on the Ethereum blokchain. These standards provide a foundation for securly managing token and optimizing transaction processing wihin DApps. Developers with expertise in Ethereum and smart contract development, as well as deep understanding of these standards, are well-suited to embark on DAapp creation.Additionally, organizations aiming to enhance aiming to enhance their services by integrating blockchain techology can also leverage these standard to build DApps that offer unique features, transparency, and cost-efficiency.

The flexibility of ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 allowds a wide range of use cases, making them applicable to various industries, including finance , supply chain, gaming, and more. Whether it's a solo developers passionate about blokchain or an established company seeking blockchain solutions, anyone interested in the benefits of decentralized applications can explore the possibilities these standards offer to build innovative DApps on the Ethereum network.

Which industries can build a DApp on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938


The finance industry can harness the power of DApps built on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 to streamline transactions,automate compliance, and enhance security. These standards enable the creation of decentralized financial applications,such as lending platforms, decentralized exchanges, and yield farming protocols,providing users.


DApps that use ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can be used to create decentralised gaming applications that allow users to own and trade in-game items without having to depend on a centralised gaming platform. This can make gaming applications more transparent and secure.

Supply chain

DApps that use ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can be used to create decentralised supply chain applications that track the movement of goods and products. This can help to ensure the provenance of goods and products and to prevent counterfeiting.

Real estate

Real estate transactions often involve complex process and multiple parties. DApps utilizing ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can revolutionize the real estate sector by offering tansparent, secure, and efficient property transfers and title management. These standards facllitate the creation of blockchain-based property registries, property tokenization, and real-times updates on property ownership, making real estate transactions more accessible and cost-effective.


ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 can be applied to healthcare DApps,ensuring the secure exchange of patient data, medical records, and pharmaceutical suply chain management. By maintainning data integrity and enabling secure communication between healthcare providers and patient, these standards empower the development of healthcare applications that enhance patient privacy and the overall quality of care.

Ledger Nano X

Ledger Nano X is a hardware wallet that provides an extra layer of security for managing digital assets within DApps. it can securely sign transactions and interact with DApps build on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938, safegaurding users's private keys and assest from potenial threats.

Trezor Model T

Trezor Model T , anther hardware wallt, offfrs robust protection for DApp users.It allows for secure transactions and interactions with blokchains applications built on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938, ensuring that users' cryptocurrencies and assets remain safe from unauthorized access.


Meatmask is a popular Ethereum wallet and gateway to DApps. It enables users to interact with a wide range of DApps built on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 directly from their web browsers. Its ease of use and integration make it a convenient choice for those exploring the world of decentalized applications.

MyEtherWallet (MEW)

MyEtherwallet is a user-friendly Ethereum wallet that supports various DApps, including those adhering to ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 standards. MEW offers users a simple and secure interface for accessing decentralized applications and managing their assets.


WalletConnect is a protocol that faciltates secure communicatin between mobile wallets and DApps. It enhances the usability of DApps built on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 by allowing users to connect their wallets seamlessly and execute transactions with confidence.

Coinbase wallet Coinbase Wallet is a mobile wallet that integrates well with Ethereum DApps. Users can access and interact with a wide array of DApps adhering to ERC-4337 and EIP-2938, all while benefiting from the user-friendly interface and the security features provided by Coinbase.

Similar projects Exist


Synthetix is a leading DeFi project that leverages the capabilities of ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 to create synthetic assets, or "synths" that track the value of real-world assets. These synths are traded on the synthetix exchange and enable users to access a wide array of assets, including cryptocurrencies, commidities, and even traditional fiat currencies. By utilizing these standard, synthetix ensures transparency and efficency in asset creation,transfer, and trading within the DeFi ecosytem.


Aave, a decentralized lending platform, utlizes ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 to enable users to borrow and lend a variety of cryptocurrencies without the need for traditional financial intermediaries. Users can deposit their assets as collatral to access loans or earn interest by providing liquidity. These standards play a pivotal rle in ensuring the security of collateralized assets and facilitating the transparent execution of lending and borrowing transactions.


Uniswap, one of the most prominent decentralized exchanges(DEXs), relies on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 to support the swapping of various tokens without the need for an intermediary. Uniswap employs automated market makers(AMMs) to provide liquidity, enabling users to exchange tokens with minimal slippage. These standards underpin the creation and management of liquidity pools, enhancing the accessibility of decentralized trading.


MakerDAO, the pioneering DeFI project, utlizes ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 to govern the stablecoin DAI and its collaterlized debt positions (CDPs). Users can generate DAI by locking up collateral in smart contracts, creating a decentralizes and stable digital currency. The standards ensure that DAI remians stable and is issued in a transprent and secure manner, revolutionzing the concept of decentralized stablescoins.


Compound is a decentralized lending protocol that leverages ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 for its lending and borrowing mechanisms. Users can lend their assets to earn interesr or borrow assets by using their existing holdings as collateral.These standard facilitate the creation and management of interest-bearing markets, allowing users to participate in a decentralized leding ecosytem with transparency and efficency.

Also Read: Build DeFi Apps Using Account Abstraction ERC 4337

Cost for Building a DApp on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938

The Expected cost for building on a DApp on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 will vary depending on the complexity of the DApp, the development team you choose, and the gas prices at the time of deployment.

Basic DApp : $500 - $1000 Intermediate DApp : $1000 - $5000 Complex DApp : $5000 - $10,000

Timelines for Building a DApp on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938.Timelines for Building a DApp on ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 will vary depending on the complexity of the DApp, the development team you choose, and the availability of resources.

Basic DApp : 2 - 4 weeks, Intermediate DApp : 4 - 8 weeks, Complex DApp : 8 - 12 weeks.


The ERC-4337 and EIP-2938 are two technologies which have potential and power both to revolutionise the way we interact with the blockchain specifically Ethereum blockchain.Also, users can now interact with smart contracts without managing and controlling their own private keys because of account abstraction, launched by the EIPs.

This will make it easier and efficient to use Ethereum for people and would allow us to develop and make some new innovative and different dApps in future.

Unlock the future of Dapp development with ERC-4337 and EIP-2938.

The Author


Founder | CTO

About Author

Mohtajj is into the creation of revolutionary products in Web3 and the Blockchain world.

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